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Question 1 Recall from your reading about the nature of volcanoes to choose the best answer: Magma tends to rise toward Earth’s surface principally because __________. of convection in the mantle of magma cooling mounting pressure within the reservoir rocks become more dense when they melt Question 2 Recall from your reading about the nature of volcanoes to choose the best answer: Which type of basaltic lava flow has a fairly smooth, unfragmented, ropy surface? Scoria Aa Pahoehoe Pumice Question 3 Refer to the following relative time scale diagram to answer the question: which of the following represents the longest subdivision of the geologic time? Mississippian Precambrian Eocene Carboniferous Question 4 Recall from your reading about the nature of volcanoes to choose the best answer: A volcanic eruption is driven by __________ and __________ which forces its way upward and may ultimately break though zones of weaknesses in the Earth’s crust. buoyancy; water pressure heat; water pressure heat; gas pressure buoyancy; gas pressure Question 5 Recall from your reading about the relative time scale and refer to the following diagram of a composite geologic section to answer the question. Which of the following is the oldest rock layer observed in the diagram? Bright Angel shale Hermit Shale Tapeats Sandstone Kaibab limestone Question 6 • Recall your reading of Relative Time Scale and Radiometric Time Scale and match the term with the definition. Isotopes Half-life Carbon 14 Igneous rocks Hutton Petrology Index fossil Stratigraphy A. Isotope found in all living plants and animals B. Atoms of the same element with differing atomic weights C. The Scottish geologist who first proposed the fundamental principle used to classify rocks according to their relative ages D. Studies on the origins of the various kinds of rocks E. The time it takes for one-half of a particular radioactive isotope in a sample to decay F. Studies of rock layering G. Forms of life which existed during limited periods of geologic time and thus are used as guides to the age of the rocks in which they are preserved H. Rocks that generally do not contain fossils Question 7 • Recall from your reading of Principal Types of Volcanoes, and match the description to the type of volcano. Large, fairly steep-sided cones composed of alternating layers of lava flows and pyroclastic material. Small basaltic cones built during one, short, eruptive episode; dominated by cinders. Volcanoes of southwestern Alaska and the Aleutian Islands. Big volcanoes of Hawaii Volcano Paricutin in Mexico Forms dikes from lava Lava is produced after the eruption and flows from the bottom Volcanoes with gentle slopes spreading over large areas A. Cinder cones B. Composite/stratovolcanoes C. Shield volcanoes Question 8 • Recall from your reading about the radiometric time scale to put the following isotopes in order of use, from oldest rock to youngest. Carbon-14 Potassium-40 Samarium-147 Thorium-232 Uranium-235 Uranium-238 Rubidium-87 Question 9 According to the figure below, give an approximate age for the Dakota Sandstone and for the Wasatch Formation. Explain what evidence you used to determine this. Question 10 Recall from your reading about the nature of volcanoes, and in your own words, compare and contrast aa and pahoehoe lava in appearance and how they form. Question 11 In your own words, briefly explain how a caldera forms from principle types of volcanos. Question 12 Volcanoes are generally not preserved in the geologic rock record because they are usually eroded away. However, the various materials erupted from volcanoes are often found preserved in the rock record. From what you have learned about the different principle types of volcanoes, h

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