Question 1 Which rock type represents the highest grade of metamorphism? Gneiss Slate Phyllite Schist Question 2 1. Which the following are the positively charged particles in an atom’s nucleus? Protons Neutrons Ions Electrons Question 3 Imagine you are handed a mineral sample. It breaks with a conchoidal fracture, but displays no cleavage. It does not react with hydrochloric acid, is a light pink color, and has a nonmetallic luster. It is harder than a streak plate, and has a specific gravity of 2.65. What mineral is it? Quartz Olivine Potassium feldspar Calcite Question 4 To transform an igneous rock into a sedimentary rock, which of the following processes must take place? Impact by a meteorite Melting and re-cooling, followed by crystallization Chemical reactions under conditions of elevated temperature or pressure Weathering, transport, deposition, and lithification Question 5 Which common mineral is composed entirely of silicon and oxygen? Quartz Calcite Diamond Olivine Question 6 Match the texture of the igneous rock with the process that formed it. Fine-grained Vesicular Coarse-grained Porphytic texture Glassy texture A. Magma that cooled rapidly at the surface or upper crust B. Magma cooled in two separate environments, first slowly, then more quickly C. Magma cooled slowly at the surface or upper crust D. Magma cooled slowly, beneath the surface E. Magma cooled rapidly, contained tiny gas bubbles F. Magma of high silica content was ejected into the atmosphere, cooling immediately Question 7 Match the items in the first column with the correct descriptions in the second column Ice Dinner plate Quartz Glass Halite Coal A. A mineral made of oxidized hydrogen B. An item that is solid like a mineral, has definite chemical composition, and shows distinctive physical properties, but is not naturally occurring C. Silicate mineral consisting solely of silicon and oxygen, with silicon-oxygen tetrahedra bonded in a complex three-dimensional network D. An item that is solid like a mineral, has definite chemical composition, and shows distinctive physical properties, but does not have an orderly crystalline structure E. A mineral consisting of a poisonous gas ionically bonded to an extremely reactive metal F. A rock composed of nonmineral matter Question 8 Place the following igneous rocks in order of cooling (high temperature to low temperature). Potassium feldspar Olivine Pyroxene Amphibole Biotite mica Question 9 Place the following elements in order according to the number of valence electrons (low to high). Neon Aluminum Chlorine Oxygen Calcium Sodium Phosphorus Carbon Question 10 List the eight most abundant elements in the continental crust. Question 11 List and describe the different characteristics of sedimentary rocks and discuss the processes that change sediment into sedimentary rock. Question 12 How is a scientific hypothesis different from a scientific theory? How does a scientific theory differ from a regular theory (i.e., a non-scientific theory in the way the term is used by lay people)? Question 13 Explain, with examples, how a change in each sphere will affect each of the other three spheres.
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