Question 1 Which of the following statements is correct? P waves travel through solids; S waves do not. P and S waves travel through liquids, but P waves do not travel through solids. S waves travel through solids, but only P waves travel through liquids. P and S waves travel through liquids, but S waves do not travel through solids. Question 2 Older, denser portions of oceanic lithosphere sink into the mantle: subduction zones along convergent plate boundaries. transform fault zones along divergent plate boundaries. rift zones along mid-ocean ridges. sites of long-lived, hot spot volcanism in the ocean basins. Question 3 During an earthquake near Port Royal, Jamaica, the water-saturated sand on which the city was built vigorously shook. As a result, the sand particles lost contact with one another, giving the mixture the consistency of a thick milk shake. Anything supported by the ground, such as buildings and people, either floated or sank. One eyewitness stated: “Whole streets with inhabitants were swallowed up. . . . Some were swallowed quite down, and cast up again by great quantities of water; others went down and were never more seen.” This is a description of __________. liquefaction tsunami landslide subsidence Question 4 Which of the following energy sources is thought to drive the lateral motions of Earth’s lithospheric plates? Gravitational attractive forces of the Sun and Moon Electrical and magnetic fields localized in the inner core The upward movement of hot buoyant mantle and the downward pull of cold oceanic lithosphere Swirling movements of the molten iron particles in the outer core Question 5 At deep ocean ridges, sediments are __________. almost entirely absent very thick very old mostly limestone Question 6 Match the term with the definition Lithosphere Asthenosphere Convergent Divergent Transform Volcanic island arc Partial melting Convection A. Boundary where two plates move away from one another B. The crust and the stiff upper mantle combined; this is broken into plates C. The growth of volcanoes from the ocean floor due to oceanic-oceanic convergence D. Rising of warm material due to lower density E. Boundary where two plates slide past one another F. The subduction of denser lithosphere beneath more buoyant continental crust G. Boundary where two plates move towards one another H. The “weak layer” within the mantle. Motion here is thought to help drive plate tectonics I. The downward movement of sediments and oceanic crust at subduction zones, which generates molten material Question 7 Match the term with the definition Deformation Fault scarp Fault Hypocenter Epicenter Anticline Syncline Dome A. The spot along a fault where movement takes place during an earthquake B. A broad upwarped feature that is roughly circular or oval-shaped when viewed from above C. The spot on Earth’s surface directly above a fault where movement takes place during an earthquake D. The folding of rock due to overlying pressure E. A fold that is highest in the middle F. Long, low cliffs produced at Earth’s surface where a fault’s vertical offset is exposed G. A fold that is lowest in the middle H. The fracture along which blocks of rock move relative to each other I. Changes in rock shape due to stresses that exceed the strength of the rock Question 8 Put the breakup of Pangaea in order, from oldest to most recent. Baja, California separates from Mexico Pangea intact India collides with Eurasia to form the Himalayas The separation of North America and Africa Southeast Asia joins with Eurasia The separation of Africa, India, and Antarctica Question 9 Question 13 Briefly describe what happens at a subduction zone Question 10 Explain why Africa and South Amer
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