SCI 256 WEEK 4 INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT SCI/256 WEEK FOUR INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION OUTLINE WORKSHEET Water Management 1) Describe Water Management and Use a) Freshwater sources Freshwater can be described as any natural occurring water found not only on the Earth’s surface but also in ponds, rivers, lakes and streams, as groundwater or in underground streams. b) Water supply problems Even though water is arguably the most vital renewable resource which exists on Earth, over 99% of the Earth’s water is not available for beneficial human use because of either the waterâ€™s salinity or the waterâ€™s location. c) Water conservation Conservation is a key part of sustainable water utilization. Because the field of water protection is shifting fast, it is likely that in the near future many innovations will reduce the total amount of water taken for various purposes. However, it is predicted that water consumption will continue to increase into the foreseeable future. d) Water use Water is either consumed by plants, animals, or humans, or used for a wide array of industrial needs. Water enters human tissue or products, or evaporates during use and is not returned to its source. Increasing groundwater usage has led to a variety of ecological troubles, including overdraft, loss of foliage along watercourses, and land subsidence. Agriculture water use is the largest type of water usage. 2) Effects of Water Use and Management Practices on the Environment a) Short-term effects We need to control human population growth and conserve as well as sustain our vitally important water resources in the short term. b) Long-term effects During the next several decades, it is expected that the total water withdrawn from streams and groundwater in the United States will decrease slightly, but the consumptive use will increase because of greater demands from a growing human population and an expanding industry. b. Three Major Types of Environmental Pollution 1) Air Pollution a) Causes The two main types of pollution sources are fixed and portable. Motionless sources have a comparatively set position and include point sources, area sources, and fugitive sources. There are two major groups of air pollutants: Chief pollutants are those emitted straight into the air, such as: particulates, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons. Lesser pollutants are those formed through reactions between primary pollutants and various other forms of matter. A perfect example of a resulting pollutant is ozone, which takes shape over city areas through reactions between primary pollutants and natural gases in our atmosphere, or our sky. b) Treatments The preferred method of reducing the discharge of air pollutants created from burning fossil fuels would be for us to begin practicing energy efficiency and conservation so that increasingly smaller amounts of fossil fuels are burned. Possibly a better option would be to increase the use of alternative energy sources, such as solar and wind power, which do not emit harmful substances into our atmosphere. Ironically, electrically powered vehicles actually help to build up the ozone layer in the atmosphere. c) Effects on ecosystem health The negative effects of air contamination on vegetation are substantial. They include harm to leaf tissue, needles, and fruit; decrease in growth rates or restraint of growth; increased vulnerability to a variety of illnesses, pests, as well as bad weather; and finally the disruption of reproductive processes d) Effects on human health Air pollutants can affect human health in several ways. The effects on an individual depend on the dose or application and other factors, including individual weakness. Some of the primary effects of air pollutants include toxic poisoning, cancer, birth defects, eye irritation, and irritation of the respiratory system; increased susceptibility to viral infections, causing pneumonia and bronchitis;
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