SBE 330 Week 3 Case Study Your response should be at least one page long and conform to APA Version 6 standards. If you have questions about APA Version 6 standards, refer to the Syllabus for instructions about accessing an APA tutorial. Below is the grading rubric used for this case study: Criteria Points Case Study Submitted case study and addressed all questions asked in assignment. Each case study presents one or more questions for analysis and explanation. A quality response fully answers the question or questions asked. 25 points APA Standards Written response conforms to APA format (in-text citations and references as required, punctuation, headings, paraphrasing, seriation). At a minimum, focus on in-text citations, sentence punctuation, seriation rules, and reference list construction. You should list and cite the text, as appropriate, when responding to case study questions. 3 points Spelling and Grammar Submitted assignment was checked for spelling and grammar errors. 2 points CASE STUDY 5 Exploring Innovation in Action: The Dimming of the Light Bulb In the beginningâ€¦. God said let there be light. And for a long time this came from a rather primitive but surprisingly effective method â€“ the oil lamp. From the early days of putting simple wicks into congealed animal fats, through candles to more sophisticated oil lamps, people have been using this form of illumination. Archaeologists tell us this goes back at least 40,000 years so there has been plenty of scope for innovation to improve the basic idea! Certainly by the time of the Romans, domestic illumination â€“ albeit with candles â€“ was a well-developed feature of civilised society. Not a lot changed until the late eighteenth century when the expansion of the mining industry led to experiments with uses for coal gas â€“ one of which was as an alternative source of illumination. One of the pioneers of research in the coal industry â€“ Humphrey Davy â€“ invented the carbon arc lamp and ushered in a new era of safety within the mines, but also opened the door to alternative forms of domestic illumination and the era of gas lighting began. But it was not until the middle of the following century that researchers began to explore the possibilities of using a new power source and some new physical effects. Experiments by Joseph Swann in England and Moses Farmer in the USA (amongst others) led to the development of a device in which a tiny metal filament enclosed within a glass envelope was heated to incandescence by an electric current. This was the first electric light bulb â€“ and it still bears more than a passing resemblance to the product found hanging from millions of ceilings all around the world. By 1879 it became clear that there was significant commercial potential in such lighting â€“ not just for domestic use. Two events occurred during that year which were to have far-reaching effects on the emergence of a new industry. The first was that the city of Cleveland â€“ although using a different lamp technology (carbon arc) â€“ introduced the first public street lighting. And the second was that patents were registered for the incandescent filament light bulb by Joseph Swann in England and one Thomas Edison in the USA. Needless to say the firms involved in gas supply and distribution and the gas lighting industry were not taking the threat from electric light lying down and they responded with a series of improvement innovations which helped retain gas lightingâ€™s popularity for much of the late nineteenth century. Much of what happened over the next 30 years is a good example of what is sometimes called the â€˜sailing ship effectâ€™. That is, just as in the shipping world the invention of steam power did not instantly lead to the disappearance of sailing ships but instead triggered a whole series of improvement in that industry, so the gas lighting industry consolidated its
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