PSYC 341 MODULE 7 EXAM 7 Question 1 The term ______________ was coined in 1973 by biologist Michael Ghiselin (1973), and later popularized by the anthropologist John Tooby and psychologist Leda Cosmides in the early 1990s. Question 2 For Charles Darwin, it has been clear that all life forms are confronted with two fundamental problems of adaptation, namely __________ and ___________. Question 3 Buss and his colleague Heidi Greiling propose _______ distinct sources of individual differences Question 4 Evolutionary theory of personality argues that the theory rates quite highly ______________________. Question 5 The fourth adaptive personality system revolves around one’s capacity and commitment to work and is the core characteristic of _______________. Question 6 ________ are evolved strategies that solve important survival and/or reproductive problems. Question 7 The evolutionary process of natural and sexual selection and chance results in _____ distinct outcomes. Question 8 Traits that happen as a result of adaptations but are not part of the functional design are called _________. Question 9 ___________ mechanisms are internal and specific cognitive, motivational, and personality systems that solve specific survival and reproduction problems. Question 10 Which statement is most true for the evolutionary theory of personality as it relates as a guide for practitioners in psychology: Question 11 _____________ is change in gene function that does not involve changes in DNA Question 12 People high in __________ are also driven and ambitious. Question 13 The essence of Buss’s theory of personality revolves around adaptive problems and their _____________. Question 14 Psychological mechanisms relevant to personality can be grouped into all the following categories, except: Question 15 _________ is also marked by a tendency to take risks and to experience positive emotion (i.e., be happy) and initiating and maintaining friendships and relationships. Question 16 Psychological mechanisms relevant to personality can be grouped into _______ main categories. Question 17 The tendency to assume that the environment alone can produce behavior void of a stable internal mechanism is called ___________. Question 18 As a young man, Skinner wanted to become a Question 19 According to Skinner, scientists seldom fabricate data mostly because Question 20 The label that best fits Skinner’s work is Question 21 Concerning emotions, Skinner believed all EXCEPT which of the following? Question 22 Skinner believed that some behavior is unconscious because the person does not think about the aversive stimuli connected with it. Not thinking about aversive stimuli is an example of Question 23 For Skinner, natural selection Question 24 To Skinner, human personality is shaped by Question 25 The systematic withholding of reinforcement previously contingent upon a response until the probability of the response diminishes to zero is Skinner’s definition of Question 27 Skinner believed that human behavior is shaped by all these factors EXCEPT Question 28 Skinner’s technique of “doing something else” is used Question 29 According to Skinner, the rate of operant extinction depends largely upon the Question 30 The three conditions essential to operant conditioning are Question 31 On the subject of dreams, Skinner believed that Question 32 People who make rewards or punishments contingent on the behavior of another are using which of Skinner’s methods of social control? Question 33 Skinner defines negative reinforcement as any condition that, Question 34 For Bandura, learning through modeling involves Question 35 Bandura recognizes all of these as processes that govern observational learning EXCEPT Question 36 According to Bandura, collective efficacy Question 37 The first requirement for internal self-regulation, according to Bandura, is Question 38 In order for observational learning to
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