Chapter 2: First Language acquisition 1) Be able o describe the stages of language acquisition, and the ages at which normally developing children tend to pass through them: Babbling Stage 1-word stage (Holophrastic) 2-word stage telegraphic stage: 2 years -2.5 approaching adult-like: 2.5 2) Production always lags behind comprehension. 3) Chomsky vs. Skinner, or the nature vs. nurture controversy 4) Pidgins, creoles Chapter 9: SEMANTICS 1) Lexical semantics: synonymy, antonymy (including its types), hyponymy, homonymy, polysemy, lexical ambiguityâ€”be able to define each and give examples 2) Semantic shifts: narrowing, broadening, amelioration and pejoration. Be able to explain each and give examples 3) Semantic features Chapter 10: Pragmatics 1) Define sentence meaning and utterance meaning 2) Define speech acts, direct and indirect speech acts 3) Conversational rulesâ€”four maxims, implicatures and flouting of maxims 4) What do we understand by Positive and Negative politeness? 5) Be able to explain Sapir Whorf hypothesis and linguistic relativity; be able to give examples Chapter 11: The Early Story of English 1) Be able to explain the following items: o The comparative reconstruction o The Proto-Indo-European family of languages o Cognates o The Grimmâ€™s Law o The Great Vowel Shift o Germanic family of languages 2) Give approximate dates of the beginning and end of Old English Period, Middle English Period and early Modern English Period 3) Discuss the major events (events that had significant effects on English language) that took place in the history of English language during Early Modern English Period. 4) Discuss the major events (events that had significant effects on English language) that took place in the history of English language during Middle English Period 5) Discuss the major events (events that had significant effects on English language) that took place in the history of English language during Old English Chapter 12: English goes Global 1) Define the following terms a. dialects, isoglosses, and Standard English, 2) Why do language varieties become different or similar? Explain the various factors clearly. 3) Discuss the phonological, grammatical features of African-American English. 4) Explain, using two clear examples, the problems with drawing a clear distinction between when two communities speak a different â€˜dialectâ€™ as opposed to saying they each speak a different â€˜language.â€™ 5) Why do stigmatized language varieties survive in spite of the intense resistance from the larger community?
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