Question 1. Local health departments outside of large cities did not exist until: The 19th century. The 20th century. The 18th century. None of the above. 2. Theories of illness can be divided into what two categories? Personalistic and naturalistic. Worldview and community view. Cognitive orientation and cultural orientation. None of the above. 3. An example of an essential public health service would be: Regulation of nursing homes. Assessment. Assurances. Policy development. 4. A current definition of public health might read as: The science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting healthâ€¦through organized community effort. The organized community efforts aimed at the prevention of disease and the promotion of health. The totality of all evidence â€“ based public and private efforts that preserve and promote health and prevent disease, disability, and death. None of the above. 5. Understanding cultural adaptation is important for health care professionals because: They will be better prepared to identify which race or ethnicity a person is. They will be better prepared to deal with such issues as language barriers and distrust of the American medical system. Both A and B. None of the above. 6. Multicultural health can be described as all, but the following: Taking into consideration a patientâ€™s lifestyle when offering treatment. Not judging those health beliefs and practices that are different from your own. Determining one best approach for providing health care. Providing care within legal, ethical, and medically sound practices. 7. Nongovernmental organizations provide assistance to public health initiatives by: Educating the public. Supporting research. Providing health services. All of the above. 8. The process that occurs when individuals or groups of different cultures are absorbed into the dominant society is called: Adaptation. Integration. Acculturation. Assimilation. 9. Each is a contributing factor to individual health except: Environmental exposures. Genetics. Behavior (lifestyle) choices. Education. 10. Each is a core public health function except: Assessment. Assurance. Addressing underlying causes of disease. Policy development. 11. Currently, an example of a vulnerable group would be: High risk mother and children. People with disabilities. Immune-suppressed persons. All of the above. 12. The main difference between a biomedical and a holistic approach to care is: Research studies. Consideration of social aspects affecting wellness. Cultural beliefs. All of the above 13. The main difference between race and ethnicity is: Race is a social construct and ethnicity is a group of characteristics that describe a group of people. People can discriminate based upon race, but not on ethnicity. People who believe in ethnicity and not race believe they are better than other races. None of the above. 14. The relationship between theories of health and illness and a personâ€™s â€œbodily experienceâ€ can best be described as: Causal. Correlational. Influencing contextual meaning. None of the above. 15. Causes of health disparities associated with residential location may include each of the following except: Environmental toxins. Economic stress. Diversity. Physical conditions. 16. The concept of Community-Oriented Primary Care implies: That public health issues can and should be addressed at the level of the community with active involvement of health care providers and community members. Certain principles underlie the concept such as defining health care needs by examining the community as a whole. That great leadership is required to develop community partnerships. All of the above. 17. Health disparities can be identified by all of the following except: Higher incidence of chronic disease. Higher mortality. Poorer health outcomes compared to the majority of the population. Ethnicit
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