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In a period of about 1000years ago, the church existence was as a single monolithic Christian Church. After that, there was a separation of this major Christian church into what became Catholic Church in the west and the Orthodox Church in the east (Kagan, 2012). Moreover, there was the recognition of diverse religions globally as people manifested freedom to associate with a particular religion. Regarding the myth of supersession among the religion, the Christians argument was that they had replaced the Jews as the people god as chosen (Kenney, 2013). This is in consideration that the Jews failed to recognize Jesus as the Messiah, and as a result crucified Jesus, hence they were rejected by god and thus selected the Christians to supersede the Jews. This consequently took a violent turn whereby the Christians perspective was that it is their duty to punish the Jews for killing the son of God, while also influencing their divine rejection of the Jews (Kagan, 2012). However, the Jews argument was that they are the true Israelites, hence the Christian aspect myth of supersession, as well as the violence which arose from one religion need to punish the other. The year 313 AD/CE was a crucial turning point for the Christians since their persecution came to an end. This is attributed to Emperor Constantine action in which he issued Edict of Milan. The objective of this issuance was to establish freedom as well as tolerance for all religions (Kenney, 2013). Moreover, his consideration of being a Christian enabled him to focus on Christian protection and support. As a result, development of churches was realized as well as official recognition of Christianity as a religion in contrast to the previous times. The three key trends that came together in shaping the development of modern Western World are the existence of rich heritage, early modern Europe and the age of discovery (Kagan, 2012). The existence of rich cultural heritage was as a result of the presence of mixed ancestry. In this environment of mixed ancestry, Greek achievements in areas such as mathematics and sciences had a significant impact in Europeans later civilization. Moreover, scientific knowledge had a great impact in influencing technological development. Secondly, the aspect of early modern Europe resulted in the growth of towns, thus contributing to the presence of a sophisticated society. Moreover, there was the existence of power structures through Europe Feudalism, which further contributed to the development of centralized monarchies (Kenney, 2013). The development thus influenced the growth of the Western World as a powerful state. Thirdly, the age of discovery contributed to the trade routes linking Atlantic to Indian as well as Pacific Oceans. Therefore, this promoted faster Western development in comparison to other states. The author’s statement that “postcolonial Christianity is decisively non-European” is attributed to occurrences in Eastern Orthodox Christianity in which the churches placed ultimate authority on church councils rather than a single bishop. Additionally, the Orthodox churches had a belief of theosis process. In this case, Christ became a human to enable the process of human divinity (Kenney, 2013). This will thus result in the sharing eternal life of God. Moreover, sin in Orthodox churches was regarded as ignorance, and thus Christ can dispel the human ignorance and restore unity. However, the aspect of Western Christianity demonstrated the existence of power and authority. As a result, there was the development of the idea of primacy, in which the bishop of Rome was manifested as the father of all the other bishops.

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