each of the following studies, identify the type of graph (histogram, timeseries graph, or scatter diagram) that would be the most appropriate. (You canuse more than one graph of each type, for example, two histograms.) a. Are stock returns more volatile than bond returns? b. Do interest rates affect home construction? c. Is the rate of inï¬‚ation higher or lower now than in the past? d. Do cigarette sales depend on cigarette prices? e. Is there more variation in the unemployment rate or the rate of inï¬‚ation? 2.3 For each of the following studies, identify the type of graph (histogram, timeseries graph, or scatter diagram) that would be the most appropriate. (You canuse more than one graph of each type, for example, two histograms.) a. Do countries with lots of smokers have lots of lung-cancer deaths? b. Does the time between eruptions of the Old Faithful geyser depend on theduration of the preceding eruption? c. Is there more variation in annual rainfall in Los Angeles or in New York? d. Have temperatures in Los Angeles gone up or down over the past 100 years? e. Could the states that Mitt Romney won and lost in 2012 have been predictedfrom how well John McCain did in each state in 2008? 2.5 Use the data in Table 1.4 to make a histogram of the US dollar prices of a Big Macin these 20 countries. Use these intervals for the prices: 1â€“2, 2â€“3, 3â€“4, 4â€“5, 5â€“8. 2.14 Do not collect any data, but use your general knowledge to draw a rough sketchof a histogram of the ages of the students at your school. Be sure to label thehorizontal and vertical axes. 2.17 Use the data in Table 1.11 to make a time series graph of the real cost of mailinga letter. 2.19 Explain why you think the following pairs of data are positively related, negativelyrelated, or essentially unrelated. If you think there is a causal relationship, whichis the explanatory variable? a. The height of a father and the height of his oldest son. b. The age of a mother and the age of her oldest child. c. The number of scalp hairs and the age of a man between the ages of 30and 40. d. A womanâ€™s pre-pregnancy weight and the weight of her baby. e. A womanâ€™s age and her cost of a 1-year life insurance policy. 2.27 Plutonium has been produced in Hanford, Washington, since the 1940s,and some radioactive waste has leaked into the Columbia River. A 1965 study ofcancer incidence in nearby communities  compared an exposure index andthe cancer mortality rate per 100,000 residents for nine Oregon counties: Which variable is the explanatory variable and which is the dependentvariable? Make a scatter diagram and describe the relationship as either positive,negative, or nonexistent. 2.32 In 1974, Congress tried to reduce US fuel usage by imposing a nationwide55 miles per hour speed limit. As time passed, motorists increasingly disregardedthis speed limit; and in 1987, the speed limit on rural interstate highways wasincreased to 65 miles per hour. Plot the data on US motor vehicle deaths per100 million miles driven, shown in Table 2.15, and see if anything unusual seemsto have happened in 1974 and during the next several years. 2.34 What is misleading about Figure 2.34, which shows the distribution of familyincome? Redraw the ï¬gure, correcting these errors. (Be sure to say how youwould deï¬ne the middle class.) 2.35 What is wrong with the histogram in Figure 2.35? 2.36 What is wrong with the histogram in Figure 2.36? 2.37 What is wrong with the histogram in Figure 2.37? 2.38 What is wrong with the histogram in Figure 2.38? 2.39 What is wrong with the histogram in Figure 2.39 that was constructed from annual rainfall data for the years 1901â€“2000? (Density is the rainfall for each year divided by the total rainfall for all 100 years.)
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